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Table of Contents
REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 6-14

Life Nurturing in the illustrated daoyin of the 24 solar terms (二十四节气)


School of Humanities, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China

Date of Web Publication18-Mar-2019

Correspondence Address:
Prof. Yi Shen
Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing
China
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_3_19

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  Abstract 


China's “24 Solar Terms”, known as the fifth invention after China's Four Major Inventions, is a knowledge system and social practice formed through observations of the sun's annual motion, and cognition of the year's changes in season, climate and phenology. More and more people in the world have been eager to know more about it since UNESCO inscribed China's “24 Solar Terms” on the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity in 2016. As a way of nurturing life, the Illustrated Daoyin of the 24 Solar Terms includes twenty-four exercise forms, corresponding to the 24 solar terms respectively, which reflects the significant idea of complying with the law of yin-yang changes in the universe. It presents a series of sitting and standing exercises designed to prevent diseases that occur during seasonal changes throughout the year. The ancient Chinese wisdom of time and life nurturing has been witnessed in China's “24 Solar Terms” and “Illustrated Daoyin of the 24 Solar Terms”. This article aims to arouse readers' concern and interest in life nurturing by introducing how to do all the exercises presented by the Illustrated Daoyin of the 24 Solar Terms, which is helpful to the prevention and cure of diseases as well as good for health.

Keywords: 24 solar terms (二十四节气), illustrated Daoyin, life nurturing


How to cite this article:
Shen Y. Life Nurturing in the illustrated daoyin of the 24 solar terms (二十四节气). Chin Med Cult 2019;2:6-14

How to cite this URL:
Shen Y. Life Nurturing in the illustrated daoyin of the 24 solar terms (二十四节气). Chin Med Cult [serial online] 2019 [cited 2019 Apr 19];2:6-14. Available from: http://www.cmaconweb.org/text.asp?2019/2/1/6/254380






  Introduction Top


The Illustrated Daoyin of the 24 Solar Terms presents a series of sitting and standing exercises designed to prevent diseases that occur during seasonal changes throughout the year. The story goes that it was handed down by Chen Tuan (陈抟), a legendary Taoist sage, styled Tunan (图南), titled Fuyao Zi (扶摇子), and later conferred the title of Xiyi (希夷) by Emperor Taizong of the Song dynasty (宋太宗).[1] That is why this exercise is also known as Illustrated Chen Xiyi's Daoyin of the 24 Solar Terms (陈希夷二十四节气导引坐功图), which was once recorded in Wan Shou Xian Shu(《万寿仙书》A Guide to Longevity and Immortality) secretly passed on by Luo Hongxian (罗洪先) in the Ming dynasty (明代) and supplemented by Cao Wuji (曹无极) in the Qing dynast (清代) as well as in Zhong Wai Wei Sheng Yao Zhi (《中外卫生要旨》Essentials of Chinese and Foreign Health) by Zheng Guanying (郑官应) in the Qing dynasty..

Chen Tuan used to live as a hermit in famous mountains such as Mount Wudang (武当山) and Mount Hua (华山). In Taoism, Chen Tuan has been claimed as the “Founder of Internal Alchemy School” (内丹派创始人) and the “Earliest Ancestor of Old Hushan School” (老华山派鼻祖). He wrote many books about the Taoist theories and the Taoist internal alchemy for life nurturing,[2] which had a profound influence upon later generations. Being adept in the practice of Taoist's inner alchemy and sleep meditation, Chen Tuan was, therefore, known as “Sleeping Immortal (睡仙).” In Chinese, he is often respectfully referred to as “Ancestor Chen Tuan” (陈抟老祖) and “Founding Master Xiyi” (希夷祖师).[1]

In Chen Tuan Zhuan (《陈抟传》 Chen Tuan's Biography), however, no documentary records witness that the exercise of the 24 solar terms was created by Chen Tuan, from which people later inferred that this exercise was just handed down in Chen Tuan's name. As a matter of fact, what people care more about is the benefits this exercise can bring to them rather than who created it. The following pictures and descriptions will lead readers to a full understanding of the exercise of the 24 solar terms.

The Illustrated Daoyin of the 24 Solar Terms includes 24 exercise forms, corresponding to the twenty-four solar terms respectively. It is a way of nurturing life[3] of the 24 solar terms, which reflects the significant idea of complying with the law of Yin–Yang changes in the universe.

The 24 solar terms go in sequence as Beginning of Spring (立春), Rain Water (雨水), Awakening of Insects (惊蛰), Spring Equinox (春分), Pure Brightness (清明), Grain Rain (谷雨), Beginning of Summer (立夏), Lesser Fullness of Grain (小满), Grain in Ear (芒种), Summer Solstice 夏至), Lesser Heat (小暑), Greater Heat (大暑), Beginning of Autumn (立秋), End of Heat (处暑), White Dew (白露), Autumn Equinox (秋分), Cold Dew (寒露), Frost's Descent (霜降), Beginning of Winter 立冬), Lesser Snow (小雪), Greater Snow (大雪), Winter Solstice (冬至), Lesser Cold (小寒), and Greater Cold (大寒).[4] According to the Gregorian calendar, the dates of the solar terms in the first half of the year are generally on the 6th and 21st of each month, whereas the dates of the solar terms in the second half of the year are usually on the 8th and 23rd of each month. The dates of the solar terms may vary by a day or two.


  January Daoyin of the Beginning of Spring (立春) Top


Practice this exercise between 23:00 and 3:00 every day. Sit cross-legged with palms overlapped on the laps. Put the left palm on the back of the right hand when breathing in. Extend the arms and shrug the shoulders. Twist the body left with the upper body straight. Make a pause for a while and then relax the shoulders and arms when breathing out. Return to the original sitting posture. Then, breathe in with twisting the body right together. The rest of the steps are the same as the former. Repeat in turn for three to five times. After that, click the teeth, take a deep breath, let the tongue agitate the mouth saliva, and finally swallow [Figure 1]. Repeat in turn for three times. This exercise can prevent and treat diseases such as the stagnation of the wind Qi, neck pain, posterior auricular pain, shoulder–arm pain, backache, and elbow pain.
Figure 1: January Daoyin of the Beginning of Spring (立春)

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  January Daoyin of the Rain Water (雨水) Top


Practice this exercise between 23:00 p.m. and 3:00 a.m. every day. Sit straight and press the left palm overlapped on the back of the right hand on the right lap. Turn left with the upper body bended down to the left. Turn the head and the neck. Look back with eyes open. After a pause, turn the head to the right with the upper body bended to the right. Turn the head and the neck. Look back with eyes open. After a pause, turn the head to the left. Repeat like this for 15 times. Then, press the right palm overlapped on the back of the left hand on the left lap and turn the head, the upper body, and the neck as the above [Figure 2]. Repeat like this for 15 times. Finally, click the teeth, swallow mouth salvia, exhale and inhale, and bring the exercise to an end. This exercise can prevent and treat diseases such as dry throat, sore throat, dry retching,[5] inflammation of the throat, deafness, canthus pain, and cheek pain.
Figure 2: January Daoyin of the Rain Water (雨水)

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  February Daoyin of the Awakening of Insects (惊蛰) Top


Practice this exercise between 1:00 a.m. and 5:00 a.m. every day. Sit cross-legged with hands clenched. Turn the head slowly to the left and then to the right for four times in turn. Bend the two elbows. Raise the forearms up to the chest with palms down and fingers naturally curled up. Stretch the two elbow joints backward together and then return to the original posture [Figure 3]. Repeat like this for 30 times. Finally, click the teeth, swallow mouth salvia, exhale and inhale, and bring the exercise to an end. This exercise can prevent and treat diseases such as pathogenic toxin accumulated in the spleen and stomach, yellowing of the eyes, dryness in the mouth, nosebleed, bleeding gum, head wind (chronic and recurrent headache), puffy face, sudden dumbness due to inflammation of the throat, blurred vision,[6] photophobia, and inability to smell due to nasal congestion.
Figure 3: February Daoyin of the Awakening of Insects (惊蛰)

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  February Daoyin of the Spring Equinox (春分) Top


Practice this exercise between 1:00 a.m. and 5:00 a.m. every day. Sit cross-legged at ease. Raise hands up to the armpits from both sides of the body with palms upward. Rotate the palms inward and then push them forward with fingertips upward and arms straight which are as high and wide as the shoulders. At the same time, turn the head to the left, return the hands back to the armpits, and turn the head right ahead. After that, do the same as the above. But, this time, turn the head to the right [Figure 4]. Repeat in turn for 42 times. Finally, click the teeth, swallow mouth salvia, exhale and inhale, and bring the exercise to an end. This exercise can prevent and treat diseases such as consumptive disease[7] of the meridians of chest, shoulder, and back; toothache; neck swelling; shivering with cold and swelling with heat; deafness and tinnitus; posterior auricular pain; shoulder–arm pain; and swelling and itchy skin.
Figure 4: February Daoyin of the Spring Equinox (春分)

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  March Daoyin of the Pure Brightness (清明) Top


Practice this exercise between 1:00 a.m. and 5:00 a.m. every day. Sit cross-legged at ease. Raise the left hand like pulling a bow and then do the same with the right hand but to the different direction [Figure 5]. Repeat in turn for 56 times. Finally, click the teeth, swallow mouth salvia, exhale and inhale, and bring the exercise to an end. This exercise can prevent and treat diseases such as spine pain, deficiency in stomach and intestines, gastrointestinal stagnation, deafness, sore throat, neck pain, shoulder–arm pain, and lumbar flaccidity.
Figure 5: March Daoyin of the Pure Brightness (清明)

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  March Daoyin of the Grain Rain (谷雨) Top


Practice this exercise between 1:00 a.m. and 5:00 a.m. every day. Sit cross-legged at ease. Lift the right hand with the palm upward and fingers pointing toward the left. Bend the left arm in a right angle with the forearm up to the chest, fingers curled up naturally, and the palm pointing inward. Meanwhile, turn the head to the left with eyes looking ahead to the left. Then, do the same with the left hand in turn [Figure 6]. Repeat in turn for 35 times. Finally, click the teeth, swallow mouth salvia, exhale and inhale, and bring the exercise to an end. This exercise can prevent and treat diseases such as spleen–stomach stuffiness and fullness, yellowing of the eyes, nosebleed, cheek–mandible swelling, lateral swelling and pain of elbows, and heat in the palms.
Figure 6: March Daoyin of the Grain Rain (谷雨)

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  April Daoyin of the Beginning of Summer (立夏) Top


Practice this exercise between 3:00 a.m. and 7:00 a.m. every day. Sit with one leg crossed and the other leg's knee bended. Embrace the knee with hands intercrossed. Pull the knee with the hands while the knee gives a reverse push to the hands for two or three seconds [Figure 7]. Repeat like this with the two legs in turn for 35 times. Finally, click the teeth, swallow mouth salvia, exhale and inhale, and bring the exercise to an end. This exercise can prevent and treat diseases such as wind-damp stagnation, painful swelling of meridians, armpit swelling, heat in the palms, and endless laughing.
Figure 7: April Daoyin of the Beginning of Summer (立夏)

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  April Daoyin of the Lesser Fullness of Grain (小满) Top


Practice this exercise between 3:00 a.m. and 7:00 a.m. every day. Sit cross-legged at ease. Press the left hand on the left shank. Lift the right hand with the palm upward and fingers pointing to the left. Then, do the same with the right hand in turn [Figure 8]. Repeat in turn for 15 times. Finally, click the teeth, swallow mouth salvia, exhale and inhale, and bring the exercise to an end. This exercise can prevent and treat diseases such as pathogenic toxin accumulated and stagnated in the lung, fullness in the chest and hypochondrium, palpitations, flushed face and nose, yellowing of the eyes, heart pain with vexation, and heat in the palms.
Figure 8: April Daoyin of the Lesser Fullness of Grain (小满)

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  May Daoyin of the Grain in Ear (芒种) Top


Practice this exercise between 3:00 a.m. and 7:00 a.m. every day. Stand in a natural posture with two feet apart as widely as shoulders. Lift the hands from the chest with palms upward, two arms straight, fingers pointing backward, and abdomen pointing forward. Bend the back backward with face upward and eyes on the hands for a few seconds. Then, put down the hands slowly along the two sides of the body [Figure 9]. Repeat it for 35 times. Finally, click the teeth, swallow mouth salvia, exhale and inhale, and bring the exercise to an end. This exercise can prevent and treat diseases such as consumptive disease, dry throat, stomachache, yellowing of the eyes, hypochondriac pain, wasting-thirst (diabetes), frequent laughing and fright, amnesia, thigh pain with generalized fever, grief, nape pain, and flushed face.
Figure 9: May Daoyin of the Grain in Ear (芒种)

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  May Daoyin of the Summer Solstice (夏至) Top


Practice this exercise between 3:00 a.m. and 7:00 a.m. every day. Squat down with the arms straight, fingers intercrossed, and palms inward. Push hands with the right foot outward while pulling the hands inward for 2 or 3 seconds. Then, do the same with the left foot [Figure 10]. Repeat in turn for 35 times. Finally, click the teeth, swallow mouth salvia, exhale and inhale, and bring the exercise to an end. This exercise can prevent and treat diseases such as wrist pain, knee pain, shoulder pain, arm pain, heat in the palms, lumbago; and the heaviness and fatigue felt in the body.
Figure 10: May Daoyin of the Summer Solstice (夏至)

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  June Daoyin of the Lesser Heat (小暑) Top


Practice this exercise between 1:00 a.m. and 5:00 a.m. every day. Put the hands behind to support the ground with fingers pointing backward, arms straight, the left leg extending forward, and the heel on the ground. Bend the right knee so that the thigh is pressed on the shank. Stare at the tiptoe with the body moving forward and then backward. Do the same with the other leg [Figure 11]. Repeat in turn for 15 times. Finally, click the teeth, swallow mouth salvia, exhale and inhale, and bring the exercise to an end. This exercise can prevent and treat diseases such as wind and dampness in the leg, knee, lumbus and thigh; dry throat; hemiplegia; amnesia; archoptoma; and moodiness.
Figure 11: June Daoyin of the Lesser Heat (小暑)

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  June Daoyin of the Greater Heat (大暑) Top


Practice this exercise between 1:00 a.m. and 5:00 a.m. every day. Sit cross-legged with fists clenched on the ground. Then, straighten the arms as widely as the shoulders with fists downward. Move the barycenter of the body forward with the upper body bended forward. Turn round the head with eyes staring at the upper right on the left side. Then, move the barycenter of the body backward, with the head turning to the front. After that, move the barycenter of the body forward again, with the head turning right. Do the same as the above in the opposite direction [Figure 12]. Repeat in turn for 15 times. Finally, click the teeth, swallow mouth salvia, exhale and inhale, and bring the exercise to an end. This exercise can prevent and treat such diseases as cough, asthma, fullness in the chest, vexation, arm pain, pain above the umbilicus, back pain, polyuria, skin numbness and pain, grief and worry with a desire for crying, intolerance of cold with fever.[8]
Figure 12: June Daoyin of the Greater Heat (大暑)

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  July Daoyin of the Beginning of Autumn (立秋) Top


Practice this exercise between 1:00 a.m. and 5:00 a.m. every day. Sit on the heels with the upper body forward. Stretch both arms as widely as shoulders to support the ground. Then draw back the chest and shrink the body with holding your breath. Raise the body and move its barycenter forward. After a pause, return to the original posture [Figure 13]. Repeat it for 56 times. Finally, click the teeth, swallow mouth salvia, exhale and inhale, and bring the exercise to an end. This exercise can prevent and treat diseases such as consumption,[9] bitter taste in the mouth and frequent sighing,[10] heart and hypochondriac pain, inability to turn over, lusterless complexion, foot heat, headache, chin pain, orbital pain, armpit swelling, and painful swelling of the supraclavicular fossa.[11]
Figure 13: July Daoyin of the Beginning of Autumn (立秋)

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  July Daoyin of the End of Heat (处暑) Top


Practice this exercise between 1:00 a.m. and 5:00 a.m. every day. Sit straight. Draw the head to the upper right on the left side and then slowly to the upper behind the right side. Meanwhile, pound the back and the waist for six times every time when the head turns [Figure 14]. Repeat in turn for 35 times. Finally, click the teeth, swallow mouth salvia, exhale and inhale, and bring the exercise to an end. This exercise can prevent and treat diseases such as wind-damp; pains of shoulder, back, chest, spine and joints; and cough with asthenic breathing.
Figure 14: July Daoyin of the End of Heat (处暑)

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  August Daoyin of the White Dew (白露) Top


Practice this exercise between 1:00 a.m. and 5:00 a.m. every day. Sit cross-legged with the hands pressing the knees. Draw the head slowly to the left and then to the right for 15 times each. Finally, click the teeth, swallow mouth salvia, exhale and inhale, and bring the exercise to an end [Figure 15]. This exercise can prevent and treat diseases such as shivering with cold, fright and madness at the sound of water, sweating,[12] nosebleed, neck swelling, inability to speak with inflammation of the throat, and vomiting.[13]
Figure 15: August Daoyin of the White Dew (白露)

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  August Daoyin of the Autumn Equinox (秋分) Top


Practice this exercise between 1:00 a.m. and 5:00 a.m. every day. Sit cross-legged with the hands covering the ears and the fingers pointing backward. Draw the upper body to the left side and then slowly to the right side [Figure 16]. Repeat in turn for 15 times. Finally, click the teeth, swallow mouth salvia, exhale and inhale, and bring the exercise to an end. This exercise can prevent and treat diseases such as wind-damp, abdominal water swelling, painful swelling of the kneecaps, lateral pain of the thigh and shank, enuresis, abdominal distension,[14] swift digestion with frequent drinking, stomach cold, dyspnea and fullness in the chest.
Figure 16: August Daoyin of the Autumn Equinox (秋分)

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  September Daoyin of the Cold Dew (寒露) Top


Practice this exercise between 1:00 a.m. and 5:00 a.m. every day. Sit cross-legged with the palms upward and fingers facing the fingers. Lift the hands slowly up to the chest. Rotate the forearms inward and lift the hands slowly with palms upward, fingertips outward, and arms straight in an open posture. Lift the body with the head turning to the left and palms downward. Put down the arms slowly along the two sides of the body [Figure 17]. Repeat like this for 15 times. Finally, click the teeth, swallow mouth salvia, exhale and inhale, and bring the exercise to an end. This exercise can prevent and treat diseases such as pathogenic toxin of wind-cold-damp invading the meridians of rib side and armpit, spine pain, yellowing of the eyes, tearing, nosebleed, and cholera.
Figure 17: September Daoyin of the Cold Dew (寒露)

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  September Daoyin of the Frost's Descent (霜降) Top


Practice this exercise between 1:00 a.m. and 5:00 a.m. every day. Sit with straight legs. Put the hands around the soles respectively. Bend the knees, push the feet forward, and pull the hands backward for a few seconds. Then, bend the knees with the arms curled up at the same time [Figure 18]. Repeat like this for 35 times. Finally, click the teeth, swallow mouth salvia, exhale and inhale, and bring the exercise to an end. This exercise can prevent and treat diseases such as arthralgia caused by wind-damp, tearing pain of the shank; pains of neck, back, lumbus, and buttocks; muscular atrophy; purulent and bloody stool; distending pain of the lower abdomen; inhibited urination; and archoptoma with chronic hemorrhoids.
Figure 18: September Daoyin of the Frost's Descent (霜降)

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  October Daoyin of the Beginning of Winter (立冬) Top


Practice this exercise between 1:00 a.m. and 5:00 a.m. every day. Sit cross-legged. Raise the hands up to the chest along the sides of the body with the palms upward and the head turning left. Then, put down the arms slowly with the head turning right ahead. Do the same again with the head turning right first and then right ahead [Figure 19]. Repeat in turn for 15 times. Finally, click the teeth, swallow mouth salvia, exhale and inhale, and bring the exercise to an end. This exercise can prevent and treat diseases such as stagnation in the chest and hypochondrium, consumptive disease, lumbago causing to fail in bending and lifting, dry throat, lusterless complexion, hiccup and vomiting with fullness in the chest, headache, cheek swelling, reddish eyes with swelling pain, hypochondriac pain involving the lower abdomen,[15] stuffiness and fullness.
Figure 19: October Daoyin of the Beginning of Winter (立冬)

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  October Daoyin of the Lesser Snow (小雪) Top


Practice this exercise between 1:00 a.m. and 5:00 a.m. every day. Sit cross-legged with the left hand on the left knee and fingers outward. Put the right hand around the left elbow. Then, pull the right hand and the left elbow outward forcefully in an opposite direction for a few seconds. After that, put the left hand around the right elbow. Do the same as the above. Repeat like this in turn for 15 times. Finally, click the teeth, swallow mouth salvia, exhale and inhale, and bring the exercise to an end [Figure 20]. This exercise can prevent and treat diseases such as arthralgia caused by wind-damp, swelling of women's lower abdomen, enuresis, painful swelling of the testicle, twitch, retracted genitals, throughflux diarrhea, cough with asthma, and frequent fright.
Figure 20: October Daoyin of the Lesser Snow (小雪)

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  November Daoyin of the Greater Snow (大雪) Top


Practice this exercise between 23:00 p.m. and 3:00 a.m. every day. Stand in a natural posture with feet separate as widely as the shoulders and knees slightly bended. Straighten the arms on both sides with palms outward and fingertips upward. Lift the feet and legs and march on the spot for several times. Finally, click the teeth, swallow mouth salvia, exhale and inhale, and bring the exercise to an end [Figure 21]. This exercise can prevent and treat diseases such as knee and foot pains due to wind-damp, mouth heat, dry tongue, sore throat, and heart pain with vexation.
Figure 21: November Daoyin of the Greater Snow (大雪)

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  November Daoyin of the Winter Solstice (冬至) Top


Practice this exercise between 23:00 p.m. and 3:00 a.m. every day. Sit in a straight-legged pose. Separate both legs as widely as shoulders. Press the knees forcefully with Sit in a straight-legged pose. Separate both legs as widely as shoulders, elbows forward on both sides, palms outward, and the upper body forward. Then, move the barycenter of the body backward and press the knees slightly with fists [Figure 22]. Repeat it for 15 times. Finally, click the teeth, swallow mouth salvia, exhale and inhale, and bring the exercise to an end. This exercise can prevent and treat diseases such as cold-damp in the hand-foot meridians, foot atrophy-flaccidity, heat in the soles, umbilicus pain, abdominal pain, hypochondriac pain, fullness in the chest, difficult defecation, cough, lumbar cold, frostbite, diarrhea and flaccidity of the limbs.[16]
Figure 22: November Daoyin of the Winter Solstice (冬至)

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  December Daoyin of the Lesser Cold (小寒) Top


Practice this exercise between 23:00 p.m. and 3:00 a.m. every day. Sit cross-legged with the right thigh on the left shank and the right shank forward. Press the right sole with the left hand. Lift the right hand with palm upward, fingers pointing right, and eyes on the lifted hand. After that, do the same alternately [Figure 23]. Repeat like this in turn for 15 times. Finally, click the teeth, swallow mouth salvia, exhale and inhale, and bring the exercise to an end. This exercise can prevent and treat diseases such as vomiting as soon as eating, epigastric pain, abdominal distension, the heaviness and fatigue felt in the body, acute pain below heart, difficulty in urination and defecation, and jaundice.
Figure 23: December Daoyin of the Lesser Cold (小寒)

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  December Daoyin of the Greater Cold (大寒) Top


Practice this exercise between 23:00 p.m. and 3:00 a.m. every day. Sit with one leg forward and the other kneeling on a bed. The sole of the forward foot supports the ground. Buttocks should sit on the heel of the knelt leg. The upper body lies backward with arms put behind on the ground on both sides and fingertips pointing backward sideways. Move the barycenter of the body backward and then forward. Do the same with the two legs alternately [Figure 24]. Repeat in turn for 15 times. Finally, click the teeth, swallow mouth salvia, exhale and inhale, and bring the exercise to an end. This exercise can prevent and treat diseases such as pathogen invading the meridians,[17] pain in the stiff tongue, inability to move and lie, pain of the foot back, abdominal distension, borborygmus, diarrhea, and ankle swelling.
Figure 24: December Daoyin of the Greater Cold (大寒)

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Following all the exercises presented by the Illustrated Daoyin of the 24 Solar Terms will be beneficial to the prevention and cure of diseases as well as good for nurturing life. Why not have a try for your health?

Financial support and sponsorship

Fund assistance: Research Base Projects of Beijing Social Science Foundation (No. 17JDYYB002)

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

Note

All the pictures in the text are downloaded from Baidu Library (百度文库) at https://www.baidu.com/. (2018.6.30.)



 
  References Top

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Xu ZR. A Study of Chen Tuan's Biography in the History of the Song Dynasty. Journal of Historical Science 1999;1:81-84.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
World Health Organization (Western Pacific Region). WHO International Standard Terminologies on Traditional Medicine in the Western Pacific Region. Beijing: Peking University Medical Publishing Press; 2009. p. 11.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
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Farquhar J, Zhang QC. Ten Thousand Things – Nurturing Life in Contemporary Beijing. New York: Zone Books; 2012. p. 14.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
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The Contemporary Chinese Dictionary (Chinese-English Edition). Beijing: Foreign language Teaching and Research Press, 2002. p. 35-2113.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
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Sun H, Cao YL. Fundamental TCM English. Qingdao: China Ocean University Press, 2010. p. 56.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
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Xie ZF. Classified Dictionary of Traditional Chinese Medicine (New Edition). Beijing: Foreign Language Press, 2002. p. 567.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
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Gao L. Zun Sheng Ba Jian (Nurturing Life from the Eight Aspects). Beijing: China Medical Science and Technology Press, 2011. p. 70.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
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Xie ZF. Classified Dictionary of Traditional Chinese Medicine (New Edition). Beijing: Foreign Language Press, 2002. p. 568.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
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Li ZG. Library of Chinese Classics (Chinese-English) Yellow Emperor's Cannon of Medicine:Plain Conversation. Xi'an, Beijing, Guangzhou, Shanghai: World Publishing Corporation, 2005. p. 193.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
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Gao L. Zun Sheng Ba Jian (Nurturing Life from the Eight Aspects). Beijing: China Medical Science and Technology Press, 2011. p. 83.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
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Li ZG. English Translation of Traditional Chinese Medicine: Theory and Practice. Shanghai: Shanghai Sanlian Bookstore, 2013. p. 245.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
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Li ZG. English Translation of Traditional Chinese Medicine: Theory and Practice. Shanghai: Shanghai Sanlian Bookstore, 2013. p. 245.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Wiseman N, Feng Y. A Practical Dictionary of Chinese Medicine. Massachusetts: Paradigm Publications, 2002. p. 1.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Sun H, Cao YL. Fundamental TCM English. Qingdao: China Ocean University Press, 2010. p. 247.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
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Gao L. Zun Sheng Ba Jian (Nurturing Life from the Eight Aspects) Beijing: China Medical Science and Technology Press, 2011. p. 100.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
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Zhang QC, Shen Y. Great Medical Culture. Beijing: Beijing Science and Technology Press, 2010. p. 73.  Back to cited text no. 17
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7], [Figure 8], [Figure 9], [Figure 10], [Figure 11], [Figure 12], [Figure 13], [Figure 14], [Figure 15], [Figure 16], [Figure 17], [Figure 18], [Figure 19], [Figure 20], [Figure 21], [Figure 22], [Figure 23], [Figure 24]



 

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Abstract
Introduction
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