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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
April-June 2020
Volume 3 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 55-114

Online since Monday, June 29, 2020

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SPECIAL SECTION ON EPIDEMIC DISEASES  

Response to epidemic disease in ancient China and its characteristics p. 55
Xinzhong Yu
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_22_20  
This article introduces the history of epidemic diseases in China and analyzes its characteristics. It aims to explore the relationships between human beings and nature, nation and society, which enlightened us to understand and recognize the influence factors and historical logic behind the history.
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Epidemic diseases and Chinese medicine: Example of severe acute respiratory syndrome and COVID-19 p. 60
Jean-Claude Dubois
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_16_20  
Epidemic diseases, known and studied in China since antiquity, are one of the main chapters of the School of Exogenous Febrile Diseases (温病学派). Along with the legends about epidemic demons, China has developed over the centuries a medical approach based on the teachings of Huang Di Nei Jing (《黄帝内经》Internal Classic), Nan Jing (《难经》Classic of Difficulties), and Shang Han Lun (《伤寒论》Treatise of Harmful Cold). However, it was in the 17th century, after the great break of the Song, Jin, and Yuan eras that an innovative spirit Wu Youxing (吴有性) first foresaw the existence of microorganisms as we know them now. His Wen Yi Lun (《瘟疫论》Treatise on Pestilences) foreshadows an original approach to epidemic diseases, particularly emerging infectious diseases of the 21st century: severe acute respiratory syndrome 2003–2004 and the COVID-19 pandemic are perfect examples. In this first article, which will be followed by two others, we will examine the classical and modern Chinese definitions of these dreadful plagues.
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Preventing COVID-19 with Chinese medicine: Concepts and suggestions p. 65
Shelley Ochs
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_23_20  
The category of “epidemic diseases” is discussed extensively in the literature of traditional Chinese medicine, however it is often overlooked in modern Chinese medicine education precisely because population-level prevention and treatment do not fit easily into the dogma that individualized herbal formulas “based on patterns identified” is the primary mode of clinical reasoning in Chinese medicine. In the recent COVID-19 epidemic, the contingencies of treating large numbers of patients meant that it was not possible to provide “one prescription for each patient.” In fact, four categories of patients were sometimes given the same formula: mild and moderate confirmed cases, close contacts of confirmed cases, and suspected cases. The lines between prevention and treatment, along with clear demarcations between individual and population-level immunity, were blurred in the mist of the urgent imperative to provide what could reasonably be expected to be effective. Lessons from the large-scale participation of Chinese medicine in the COVID-19 public health crisis are relevant for the global community of Chinese medicine practitioners and may provide insights into how future epidemics could be addressed in the absence of effective vaccines or pharmaceuticals.
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RESEARCH ARTICLES Top

Nguyen Van Nghi (阮文义 1909–1999): Pioneer of traditional Chinese medicine in the West in the 20th century p. 74
B U I Anita
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_14_20  
Traditional Chinese medicine in the 20th century, along with acupuncture, took off in France. Nguyen Van Nghi is one of the most important carriers of Chinese medical knowledge outside of China. He is a doctor by Western training, but can read oriental texts; he contributes to the spreading of this knowledge in France and in Europe. He left a rich legacy to French acupuncturists.
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He (和), a peace-oriented philosophy p. 80
Anwen Zheng
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_9_20  
An account of historical background, definition, and application of he(和)in traditional Chinese medicine is given in this article. It is mutual respect and tolerance that lay a solid foundation for he(和), which has deeply shaped the Chinese culture.
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Taking mafei powder (麻沸散) as an example to explore the evidence of the existence of ancient anesthesia p. 83
Hongkai Yuan, Dongdong Zhou, Leimiao Yin
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_11_20  
Anesthesia has a long history in China. Ancient doctors have already created a variety of anesthetic formulae for surgery and the most famous one is Mafei powder (麻沸散). However, there are a few literatures about Mafei powder and Mafei powder was not recorded at that time. This article tries to discuss the existence of Mafei powder by summarizing relevant records in ancient books such as San Guo Zhi (《三国志》 Records of The Three Kingdoms) and Hou Han Shu (《后汉书》 History of the Latter-Han Dynasty) and analyzing the anatomical, surgical, and pharmaceutical conditions at Hua Tuo's (华佗) time.
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Envision “Disability”: “Abnormal people” and “The wizards” in early ancient times p. 87
Shengping Li
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_5_20  
As a natural phenomenon, people with disabilities were not stigmatized from the very beginning. In antiquity, some parts of their body being “different from those of normal persons,” they were considered to have a special ability to communicate with heaven, earth, and the Gods. As a result, people with disabilities were able to hold the position of “wizard,” which had a high status and important influence. However, with the division of labor in the human society, people with disabilities gradually lost the prerogative in labor production due to the limitation of their ability to work, which affected their social status and led to the social discrimination and “stigmatization” toward them gradually. Before this transformation happened, people's envision on people with disabilities, including a variety of images, was indicative of the social consciousness at that time.
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On “Pestilences” in an ancient vietnamese medical book, Nan Yao Shen Xiao (《南药神效》 Miraculous Vietnamese Medicine) p. 94
Lina Yang, Jihao Li, Li Shang
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_15_20  
Nan Yao Shen Xiao (《南药神效》Miraculous Vietnamese Medicine) is “an ancient Vietnamese medical book in Chinese language” that is extant in Vietnam and plays an important part in Vietnamese medical development history. In the chapter of “Pestilences,” the characteristics, prevention, and treatment of pestilences were described in detail. By comparing Miraculous Vietnamese Medicine with Chinese medical books including Ben Cao Gang Mu (《本草纲目》Compendium of Materia Medica), it can be seen that the prevention and treatment of pestilences were profoundly influenced by Chinese medical books. The folk-proven prescriptions in Compendium of Materia Medica, Zhou Hou Bei Ji Fang (《肘后备急方》Handbook of Prescriptions for Emergency), Bei Ji Qian Jin Yao Fang (《备急千金要方》Important Prescriptions Worth a Thousand Gold for Emergency), and other Chinese medical books were included directly or after adaptation (slight modification in dosage and usage) in Miraculous Vietnamese Medicine. This form of “foreign acceptance” witnessed the history of medical culture communication between China and Vietnam, expanded the application scope of Chinese medicine in prevention and treatment of pestilences in a foreign land, promoted the overseas spread of folk-proven prescriptions in Chinese medicine to treat pestilences, and played a major part in treatment and prevention of disease in ancient Vietnam.
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Analysis of the application of “Jing (精)” in Ben Cao Gang Mu (《本草纲目》 Compendium of Materia Medica) p. 99
Yiwen Yang, Xiaobei Jiang, Baican Yang
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_6_20  
Taking the Ben Cao Gang Mu (《本草纲目》 Compendium of Materia Medica) (Jinling edition金陵本) as the research object and “Jing” as the search term, this article summarizes the quantity of medicinals containing “Jing” in Ben Cao Gang Mu, analyzes the connotation and application of “Jing” in traditional Chinese medicine, and finds that the application of “Jing” in medicine does not deviate from the original meaning of “Jing,” but endows it with the concepts of medicine and pharmacy, and expands the application scope of “Jing.” This study is helpful to understand and use spermicide more reasonably.
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The Li lineage of traditional Chinese medicine p. 105
Heng Li
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_17_20  
Chinese medicine cannot be separated from Chinese culture and history. Professor Li Ding's path floridly embodies that, and so is worthy not just of admiration, but also of studious exploration. Aside from still, after well over half a century there, serving as a doctoral supervisor professor at the Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine (SHUTCM), and being one of the university's founders, he continues to contribute long after having been formally declared “A representative inheritor for China intangible cultural heritage – Acupuncture and Moxibustion.” This is the second article in a three-part series on Professor. Li Ding. The first part focuses on ”The Lineage of Gu Yi Tang,” and that storied our family history we will continue discussing now, with this second installment: ”The Lineage of Chinese Studies,” which introduces professor Li's Chinese cultural studies. The forthcoming third part: ”The Lineage of Dao Sheng Tang” will discuss professor Li's inheritance of Chinese medicine specifically. These three articles will bring our readers a rich and colorful Chinese scroll painting, which not only focus on acupuncture and general Chinese medicine, but also touch ancient Chinese history, culture, Taoism, and even more.
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NEWS AND VIEWS Top

Appreciation of one prescription by Jin Zijiu (金子久) p. 111
Lin Yu
DOI:10.4103/CMAC.CMAC_21_20  
Jin Zijiu (金子久), taught by his father Jin Zhishi (金芝石), is a famous doctor in the late Qing Dynasty and the early Republican period (1840–1928). With remarkable medical skills and high medical ethics, Jin Zijiu has lots of students and is especially good at treating warm diseases. By analyzing one prescription of Jin Zijiu preserved in Shanghai Museum of Traditional Chinese Medicine (上海中医药博物馆), this article explains his academic thought and clinical experience and shows his superb literary and artistic accomplishment.
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